Part 1. HTML and XHTML Reference
This part gives a total rundown of HTML labels and properties determined in the W3C suggestions for HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.1 in addition to those actualized in yesterday’s and the present standard programs. This incorporates numerous things from the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG, for example, Web Forms 2.0.
Variant data goes with each tag and trait so you can see whether a specific section applies to the browser(s) you should bolster. Initially, you can see the form number of Internet Explorer (IE), pre-Mozilla Netscape Navigator (NN), Mozilla-based programs (Moz), Safari (Saf), Opera (Op), and the W3C HTML particular (HTML) in which the thing was first presented.
Since this book manages Dynamic HTML, the history course of events returns just to HTML 3.2, Netscape Navigator 2, and Internet Explorer 3. For subsidiaries of the Mozilla Foundation’s program (e.g., Firefox, Netscape 6 or later, Camino, and so on.), see Appendix F.
Albeit some DHTML offices were accessible in early forms of Opera, this book begins its Opera history with adaptation 7 from 2003, which corresponds with the coming of the rendering motor that Opera utilizes today. In this way, a thing stamped “Operation 7” may have been upheld by before variants.
Other than for Opera, if a thing existed before one of these renditions—or was accessible at the primary arrival of more up to date programs, for example, Mozilla and Safari—is still being used, it is just denoted “all.” Where no usage exists, I’ve utilized “n/a” to demonstrate that.
HTML vs. XHTML
Things legitimate for a solitary rendition demonstrate the number encased in pipe images (e.g., |4| for Version 4 as it were). Belittled things are recorded here in light of the fact that cutting edge programs bolster them for in reverse similarity, and heritage code may depend on them.
The reference sections are structured with the goal that it is anything but difficult to see which components require end labels (in HTML), and whether characteristics are discretionary or required. Scripted protest references are shown in the W3C DOM standard punctuation style except if the thing requires an alternate DOM style (e.g., the Navigator 4 layer component).
All precedent code is organized by W3C HTML benchmarks in light of the fact that the vastest number of DHTML programs bolster that configuration and all perusers will be acquainted with it. In the meantime, in any case, the code exhibits most practices empowered for XHTML organizing, for example, lowercase tag and property names and cited trait estimations of various kinds.
The main XHTML arranging qualities lacking from the precedent code are end labels for void components, (for example, the XHTML in reverse good <br/> strategy) and unequivocal esteem assignments to properties that don’t require them in HTML, (for example, the chose characteristic of checkbox type input components).
These coding style varieties are anything but difficult to alter without anyone else if your code must adjust to XHTML approval (see Online Section I).
For inside and out inclusion of occasion types identified with occasion characteristics referenced in this part, see Chapter 3. To discover which, assuming any, HTML and XHTML DTDs bolster a specific component or trait, counsel Appendix E.
Trait Value Types
Numerous HTML component traits share comparable information prerequisites. For quickness in the reference postings, this area depicts a couple of basic quality esteem types in more detail than is conceivable inside each posting.
At whatever point you see one of these trait esteem types related with a quality, counsel this area for a portrayal of the sort.
A length esteem characterizes a direct proportion of report land, for example, the width of a table component. The unit of estimation can be any appropriate unit that distinguishes a position or space on the screen.
HTML property length units are consistently pixels, however in other substance, for example, that predetermined in Cascading Style Sheets (see Chapter 4), estimations can be in inches, picas, ems, or other applicable units. A solitary numeric esteem may speak to a length when it characterizes the balance from an edge of a component.
For instance, an organize point (10,20) comprises of two length esteems, indicating pixel estimations from the left and best edges of a component, individually.
A length esteem applying to a flat or vertical space may likewise be spoken to as a rate esteem, for example, width=”50%”. Characteristics related with length esteems are belittled for comparing CSS qualities for strict HTML 4 and XHTML conformance.
An identifier (normally allocated to name or id qualities) is a name that sticks to strict linguistic tenets. In particular, an identifier is single word with no whitespace permitted. On the off chance that you have to utilize various words to depict a thing, you can utilize the camelCase organize (in which inner letters are promoted) or an underscore character between the words.
Most accentuation images are not allowed, but rather all numerals and in sequential order characters are. To evade potential clashes with scripting dialects that allude to things by their identifiers, it is great practice to abstain from utilizing a numeral for the main character of an identifier.
URI and URL
The term Universal Resource Identifier (URI) is an expansive term for a location of substance on the Web. A Universal Resource Locator (URL) is a kind of URI. For most web writing, you can consider them one and the equivalent on the grounds that most internet browsers limit their concentration to URLs.
A URL, generally connected to href and src properties, might be finished (counting the convention, host, space, and the rest) or might be in respect to the URL of the present record.
There is a broad rundown of standard codes that distinguish the talked and composed dialects of the world. A dialect code dependably contains an essential dialect code, for example, “en” for English or “zh” for Chinese. Regular two-letter essential codes are classified in ISO-639 (an excerpted rundown of codes is accessible at http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1766.txt).
A discretionary subcode (isolated from the essential code by a hyphen) might be utilized to recognize an explicit execution of the essential dialect, more often than not as per utilization inside an explicit nation.
In this way, in spite of the fact that “en” implies English, “en-US” implies a U.S.- explicit form of English. The program must help a specific dialect code for its importance to be of any an incentive to a component quality.
The incessant nearness of the adjust trait among different components (and the related however less unavoidable valign characteristic) is misdirecting while portraying quality qualities, in light of the fact that the property passes on various implications for a few component gatherings.
Add to the blend a few exclusive qualities that are actualized in a few programs, and it’s anything but difficult to befuddle which esteems to utilize when. That every single such quality are expostulated for the CSS content adjust (even) and vertical-adjust properties is welcome alleviation to creators who code their design solely with CSS (and for whom this area is to a great extent immaterial).
Component arrangement is distinguishable into five classes, each with its very own arrangement of relevant components and admissible qualities. Programs acknowledge case-heartless qualities, however in the event that you mean to keep working with these properties, you ought to start utilizing every lowercase incentive to accommodate with the transitional DTDs.
The main class oversees the arrangement of content that encompasses the rectangular space of the component bearing the adjust characteristic. W3C HTML components in this class incorporate applet, iframe, img, information, and protest.
IE includes insert, fieldset, and select components to the rundown, while erasing iframe. Here is a rundown of different generally bolstered adjust trait settings for these components and how they influence the presentation of the component and encompassing content substance:
Content is adjusted with the end goal that the base of any conceivable content rendering (counting character descenders) is on indistinguishable flat line from the plain base of the component.
The center of the content tallness (from descender to ascender) is lined up with the center of the component stature.
The standard of the content is on indistinguishable even line from the specific base of the component (take note of that character descenders stretch out beneath the pattern).
The W3C authorized esteem that is what could be compared to pattern.
On the off chance that there is content beginning on indistinguishable line from the component, the component is brought down to the following line and showed flush left inside the following furthest holder setting. Content that pursues the component snaps up as far as possible of the content going before the component, making the content fold over the protest or picture (called skimming). This is a W3C-endorsed esteem.
The gauge of the content is lined up with the center of the component stature. This is a W3C-endorsed esteem.
In the event that there is content beginning on indistinguishable line from the component, the component is brought down to the following line and showed flush appropriate inside the following furthest holder setting. Content that pursues the component begins on hold promptly beneath the beginning content, making the content fold over the question or picture (called drifting). This is a W3C-endorsed esteem.
The simple best of the component is on indistinguishable flat line from the ascenders of the previous content.
The highest point of the component is on indistinguishable flat line from the highest point of the tallest component (content or other sort of component) rendered in the line. This is a W3C-endorsed esteem.
Content arrangement inside the containing box
The legend component acts like a name for a shape’s fieldset component. The subtitle does likewise for a table. Arrangement of these components applies to the area of the component’s content in respect to the rectangular space involved by the shape’s fieldset fringe or table.
Support for this component trait combine shifts broadly among present day programs. The adjust trait settings for this classification are:
Content is adjusted at the base or beneath the related component’s container. Programs obey trait esteem just for subtitle component. This quality is a W3C-authorized esteem.
Content is at the best or over the related component’s container and focused evenly. In spite of the fact that not a W3C-endorsed esteem, this esteem is bolstered in present day programs for the inscription component, however not the legend component in Safari or Opera.
In spite of the fact that this is a W3C-authorized esteem (where signs are that content ought to be to one side of the containing component), programs adjust content at upper left of box for legend; for subtitle, just Mozilla places inscription content to one side of the component.
Despite the fact that this is a W3C-endorsed esteem (where signs are that content ought to be to one side of the containing component), programs adjust content at upper right of box for legend; for subtitle, just Mozilla places inscription content to one side of the component.
Content for legend adjusted at upper left of containing box; at best place for inscription. This is a W3C-endorsed esteem.